Navigation and tables of contents

We create website navigation and tables of contents in the _data/meta.yml file of the Electric Book template. The data in the meta.yml file is written in a syntax called yaml, which is very strict (e.g. a slight error in indentation can prevent your whole book from building), but once you get the hang of it, adding your book’s information for output will be easy enough.

You can test whether your yaml is valid by pasting it into the box on and clicking ‘Go’. The yamllint validator will tell you whether it is valid or not, and will tell you on which lines errors appear with relative accuracy.

The _data/meta.yml file includes all of the metadata of your book, from the series name and ISBN to the names of each file for your contents page. By default, the title page, copyright page and contents page pull information from the _data/meta.yml file.

How to edit the nav and TOC

  1. In the works: section, and then in the directory section for your particular book, and then under products:, scroll down to the output format you want to edit. E.g. web:.
  2. Edit (or create, if it doesn’t exist) a toc: section indented by two spaces below, say, web:.
  3. For each navigation or table of contents entry, add a line for each of file: "", label: "" and, optionally, id: "" and class: "", for each TOC entry. The first line in the TOC entry should have a -, like a bullet point.
  4. To nest entries beneath an entry, give the parent entry a children: line, then indented on the next line add file: "", label: "", and so on.

The label can be anything you want, but is usually the heading of the section you are including in the table of contents, since the label is what displays in the table of contents or navigation. The file is the filename of the file that the item will link to, without a file extension. The optional id is usually the slug of the heading (the heading stripped of spaces, punctuation, and uppercase letters).

Here is an example:

          - label: "Chapter Two"
            file: "02"
            id: "2-goodbye-world"
              - label: "subsection"
                file: "02"
                id: "example-id"

If you only add a toc for print or web output, the template will try to read that TOC for the other formats, too, so that you don’t have to repeat your toc for every format. If you want a different TOC for a given format, you can give that format it’s own toc section.

Note that the toc and nav sections in meta.yml are structurally identical. In many projects they are the same except that one starts with toc and the other nav. A PDF will never need a nav, but a website output might have both a toc (which displays a Table of Contents on a body text page) and a nav (which defines the dropdown menu on a website).

Using IDs for accurate linking

For PDFs, ids ensure that the TOC contains accurate page numbers in books where chapters start with a blank left-hand page.

Note that within a file, an id can only be used once, as ids are unique. So, for example, if you have two subsections in one file both titled ‘Extra Information’, the ids will likely be ‘extra-information-1’ and ‘extra-information-2’.

If you are having trouble finding the slug for the id: generate a web version of your book, go to the heading, right click on it and choose ‘Inspect’ (you may need Cmd Shift C on Mac to get element-specific information). In the Elements box you should see a line of code that gives you the element’s id. For a heading level 1 called ‘Chapter 5: Animals’, the id is shown in this line of code followed by the label:

<h1 id="chapter-5-animals">Chapter 5: Animals</h1>

Here chapter-5-animals is the id.

Note that to see files in website navigation at all, they must be included in your web output in the nav: section of _data/meta.yml. Otherwise you have to know the URL of the page you’re looking for and enter it directly into the browser’s address bar.

Adding classes to control design

You can optionally add a class line to specify the class of an element. For example, frontmatter in the book (such as a preface, whose entry in the TOC which you might want to look different from chapter content) can be given a different style by adding the line class: "frontmatter-reference" to the node of the metadata where you defined its label, file and id.

By default, frontmatter-reference in PDF output can provide a lower-roman-numeral page number, if lower-roman has been set in the $frontmatter-reference-style variable in your book’s -pdf.scss stylesheets.

Generating the TOC

Once you have constructed your metadata for all of the outputs of the book that you’re outputting (for example, print PDF and web formats), use:

{% include toc %}

in a markdown file. This tag generates a table of contents. In the default template you can see this in the file.

Note that for the include toc tag to work (and many other tags, such as {{ images }}), somewhere earlier in the document you must include this tag:

{% include metadata %}

We recommend including this include metadata tag at the start of all markdown files, so that tags are available.

Epub TOCs

Epubs have special TOC needs. See the epub output section on metadata.